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Investigating the contribution of Islamic Nations in the development of Irrigation and administration of water in Medieval
[ Mohammadreza shahidipak ] - departman of Arts and literature and history Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch
Irrigation system in eastern societies is one of the most important aspects in history of Technology and culture that has been investigated by many Orientals as Wittfogel, Lambton , Wilinkson. Islamic heritage in irritation and water management is an obvious hydraulic phenomenon and has an important place in economic and political history. Islamic Societies bequeathed an extensive, developmental and complicated irrigation system and hydraulic technology in some areas of ancient civilization such as Persian of Sassanid ,Mesopotia, Transoxania, Iraq ,Egypt, Afriqya, Tunisia, Syria, Arabian peninsula and hydraulic societies were formed by establishing some new Islamic cities which were up on irrigation system. These experiences in irrigation technology were written down by some scientists including , Avesina , Karaji, Buzajani , Heravi , Damanhuri , specially by Banu Musa which are considered in the sense of modern system of control engineering of water for the first time.. Ibn-Al-Awam invented drip irrigation by using ceramics. Some managers and engineers plumbed Tunisia the capital of Hafsid Kingdom in 1540 A. D. by cooper pipe which was searched in my doctorial thesis. Bahaie managed the Isfahan water whose work was written in scroll division of water in 1610 A. D. many of these scientific heritage were translated by many Orientals that one of which is called Agriculture which is written by Andalusian scientist called Ibn-Al-Awam (1200 A. D.) which is finally translated by clement mutt in franch in 1860 A. D. this translation was the biggest asset to European civilization. Islamic nations established some local organizations and government administrations for classification of water law, such as Divan of water in some cities of Iran such as Marve, Qom, Harat, Yazd and Arabian peninsula as Oman and also in Andalusia as a court of water in Valencia. This article has investigated the share of Islamic scientist about irrigation system in medieval. Civilization and studied by anthropological research to find and paradigm. Among sustainable irrigation development, culture, religion, tradition and technology. Since Islamic nations have experienced sustainable irrigation system for about five centuries. this article studied the causes of falling irrigation system in Islamic societies and investigated the historical necessity of the managerial revolution irrigation system.
Wittfogle, Bahai ,court of water , drip irrigation, hydraulic societies, Yazd, divan